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The question of original home of the Aryans is perhaps the most controversial topic of the ancient Indian History. Some scholars believe that the Aryans were native to the Soil of India while others believe that the Aryans were migrated from outside, i.e. Central Asia (Max Muller); Europe Arctic region (B.G. Tilak) and so on.

  • Literally ‘Aryans’ means – the best or eminent.
    • Originally they lived somewhere in the steppes stretching from southern Russia to Central Asia and spoke Indo- European languages which were currently spoken in changed forms all over the Europe, Iran and greater part of Indian subcontinent. As a result several words of common usage show striking similarities between Sanskrit and some of the principal languages of Europe.
    • In fact, the group that came to India first settled in Sapta Sindhu. They lived here and gradually pushed into the valleys of the Ganges and the Yamuna.
    • The earliest wave of Aryans is called the Rig vedic people who appeared in about 1500 B.C.
    • It is believed that before the coming of the Aryans in India, the greater part of the Northern-Western India was covered by Dravidians. After the arrival of the Aryans they moved southwards.
    • In order to prove their supremacy the Aryans took this name and called themselves ‘the Aryans’ and they called their opponents ‘Anarya’, ‘Dasy’ or ‘Das’.
    • The Aryans were handsome, fair and slim shape persons.
    • Their minds were filled with natural imaginations.
    • They were brave and laborious with highly developed attitude and were farmers peasant and loved nature in the form of god.
    • They linked milk and wheat bread.
    • The Aryan chief was soft towards the dasas, but bitterly hostile to the dasyus. The term dasyuhatya, slaughter of the dasyus, is repeatedly mentioned in the Rig veda. Yadu, Turvasu, Druhyu, Anupuru, Panchala, Bharata and Tritsu were the chief tribes of the period.
    • They domesticated various animals most important of which was the horse.
    • They brought with them their Patrilinear family system, their worship of sky gods and their horses and chariots. (Rath)


The subject matter of the original home of Aryans attracted many scholars to present their views but all the opinions given by them became a matter of discussions.

  • Many scholars, such as Ganganath Jha, D. S.Trivedi, L. D. Kalla, etc. tried to prove that the Vedic Aryans were neither foreigners nor did they migrate into India. They were the indigenous people, who regarded Sapta-Sindu as their original home.
  • Some European scholars assigned the Baltic Sea region as the original home of the Aryans.
  • B.G. Tilak suggested the polar region.
  • Some inscriptions of about 1440 B.C. found at Boghaz koi in Cilicia (Asia Minor), the capital of the ancient Hittites, mention some Aryan deities such as Indra, Varuna, Mitra and the Nasatyas (Aswins) which proves Central Asian theory as their homeland.
  • However the region of Sapta-Sindhu (the land of the seven rivers) witnessed the composition of the sacred hymns which describe the early growth and development of the vedic culture.


  • Chariot driven by horses
  • Weapons made of good quality bronze
  • Use of armour (varman)
  • Use of destructive machine called”Purcharishnu“


Rig Veda says that there were various groups of Aryans and they came to India in search of food and habitation and later on they settled here. Some famous groups were Panchajan (the most famous group), Bharat, Trissu, Kriva, etc. The Panchajan consisted of Anu, Druhalaya, Yadu, Turvas and Puru. In between 2000 BC and 1000 BC the Aryans would have arrived in India. It is supposed so.

  • The Expansion of the Aryans was started from Afghanistan and were expanded up to the Western Coast of Ganga River.
  • The Aryans were aware of the Himalayas but they did not know Vindhyachal, Aravali, Satpuda, and Southern Plateaus. So, we can say that in Rig Vedic period the Aryans were expanded from Himalaya to Malva in North-South direction and from the Western coast of Ganga to Afghanistan in East-West direction.
  • In Rig Veda period they had no approach in the Southern and Eastern parts of India.
  • They lived in Saptasindh area for a long period and later on, during post-vedic era they started reaching towards the East and South.
  • Gradually, they established their sovereignty in Kurukshetra, Kashi, Koshal, Videh, Panchal and the coastal area of Ganga and Yamuna.
  • In the beginning of the 8th century B.C. they organised Magadh, Anga, Paundra, Kaling, Shabar-pulind and Southern India.


Altogether 99 Rivers are referred to in the Rig Veda of mostly from Afghanistan. The 15 principal rivers are given in the table. In Rigveda we find the descriptions of the various rivers of Afghanistan. They are Kubha, Suvastu, Gomati and Kramu. The Saptasindhu’s rivers, i.e. Saraswati, Sindhu vistasha, Asibini, parushini, vapasa and shatudri are also explained in the Rigveda. In it, Ganga is named only once whereas Yamuna is repeated thrice. It reflects that earlier they were expanded in the area of Saptasindhu and till then unaware of the Ganga-Yamuna’s plain. Some of the minor rivers were Rasa, Anumati, Asuniti, Raka, Gungu, Susoma, Marud-Vrdhas, etc.

Name of the rivers illustrated in the Rigveda

SindhuIndus     Punjab
VipasaBeas      Punjab
ParushniRavi      Punjab
Sutudri  SutlejPunjab
Krumu  KurramAfghanistan
GomalGomatiAfghanistan, Punjab
Ganga   Ganga   Uttar Pradesh
YamunaYamunaUttar Pradesh
Name of the rivers illustrated in the Rigveda

To conclude, we can say that the Aryans were living in the east of Caspian Sea in Auxus River’s reign. Dr.Hormely is of the opinion that the Aryan came to India into levo, groups. The first was of Manav dynasty and the other was ‘L’ dynasty. During this vedic period they did not enter ahead from Punjab.

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